Meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) is a sulfhydryl-containing, water-soluble, non-toxic, orally-administered metal chelator which has been in use as an antidote to heavy metal toxicity since the 1950s. More recent clinical use and research substantiates this compound’s efficacy and safety, and establishes it as the premier metal chelation compound, based on oral dosing, urinary excretion, and its […]
This article reviews the pharmacological properties and the uses of two important antidotes for heavy metal poisoning.
Antioxidants – vitamins B6, C and E, zinc, taurine, N-acetylcysteine, and alpha-lipoic acid, either alone or in conjunction with standard pharmaceutical chelating agents – have been studied in lead-exposed animals. The evidence for their use in lead exposure, alone and in conjunction with chelating agents, is reviewed in this article.
Information on EDTA, DMPS and DMSA.
Metal-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity, with an emphasis on the generation and role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, is reviewed.
The role of reactive oxygen species, with the subsequent oxidative deterioration of biological macromolecules in the toxicities associated with transition metal ions, is reviewed.